In a new study, researchers from the National Institutes of Health, Duke University, Columbia University, Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of North Carolina, University of Pennsylvania, and Boston University tracked a person at the beginning Drawing a new road map to the powerful immune response produced by the HIV virus in order to develop a coveted HIV virus vaccine, which is expected to enhance the body's ability to neutralize the virus.
Under the leadership of Dr. Barton F. Haynes, director of the Duke University Human Vaccine Research Institute, and Dr. John Mascola, acting director of the National Institutes of Vaccine Research Center, the researchers first discovered antibodies and Viruses have evolved together. Related research results were published online in the journal Nature on April 3, 2013, with the title of the paper "Co-evolution of a broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody and founder virus".
Most vaccines work by inducing this antibody immune response, but so far it has been difficult to develop HIV virus vaccines. When HIV virus antibodies are produced, they usually only work against a limited number of HIV virus strains. However, this virus quickly changes to avoid attacks by the immune system, which causes the virus and the human body to initiate an arms race, but this virus is usually the winner.
In the current study, the researchers used new technology to detect early infections and track subsequent immune responses and virus evolution. These findings have helped to develop an effective viral vaccine. Worldwide, the HIV virus has been killed 30 million people died.
Haynes said, "We are not only drawing the evolutionary path map of the HIV virus antibody for the first time, but also the first time drawing the evolution path map of the HIV virus, thereby identifying a series of events that induce these broadly neutralizing antibodies."
The key to this study is an HIV-infected person from Africa: this viral infection was detected so early that the virus has not been mutated to avoid immune attacks. This infected person also showed An incidental feature: the immune system is capable of producing widely neutralizing antibodies. This feature is only observed in approximately 20% of HIV-infected people. These broadly neutralizing antibodies attack the rapidly mutating HIV virus Sensitivity-conserved sites. After identifying early viral infections, the researchers discovered viral coat surface glycoproteins that trigger the production of broadly neutralizing antibodies.
Now, by tracking the exact evolutionary path of these viruses and antibodies, researchers have drawn up a detailed roadmap for the development of a potential vaccine that involves the use of specifically selected viral coat immunogens to activate broadly neutralized antibody production .
Haynes said, "The next step is to use this information to make a series of viral coat glycoproteins and use them to try to develop experimental vaccines."
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